Confucius

confucius
The Chairman's Bao

Confucius was a Chinese Philosopher & Politician. Chinese name, Hanyu Pinyin (Kôngzî), seal script. He was the politician of the Spring & Autumn Period. Which was the period 771 to 476 BC in Chinese History. Philosophy of Confucius is known as Confucianism. He emphasized on personal & Governmental morality. Correctness of Social Relationship, Justice & security. Following the victory of Han over chu, Confucius’s thought developed into a system known as Neo-Confucianism. Later, New Confucianism or Modern Neo-Confucianism.

Importance

He is also credited for authored or edited many chinese classic texts, including all five classics. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled into Analects. His principle was in Common with Chinese tradition & beliefs. He encouraged respect by Children’s to elders . And, respect to wives by their husband. He was important & influential in Shaping Human History. 

Early Life

Confucius was Born on September 28, 551BC. Born in Zou, present-day Wifi, China. His father Kong He was elderly Commandant of Lu garrison. Kong He died when Confucius was 3. His mother, Yan Zhengzai , raised him. At the age of 19 he married Qiguan. 

Education & Jobs

Confucius was educated at schools for commoners . He Studied & learned the six arts. Six arts were, Music, Archery, Charioteering, Calligraphy, Mathematics. Also, He worked in Various Government Jobs during early 20’s. He also worked as a Bookkeepers & Caretaker of Sheep & horses.

Political Career

Confucius had built considerable reputation through his teachings. While, families recognize value of proper conduct & righteousness. 

Political Positions

In his early 50s Confucius served as Magistrate. Then, as Assistant Minister of Public works. Afterwards, Minister of Justice in the state of Lu. At 56, he realized his seniors were uninterested in his policies.



Leaving China

Therefore, Left Country , in an attempt to find another feudal state. Feudal state to which he could render his service. He was accompanied by an expanding circle of students during self-imposed exile of 12 years. 

Return & Death

Confucius returned home to his native Lu at the age of 68. Actually, he was invited to return to Lu by Ji Kangzi, Chief Minister of Lu. The Analects depicted, he spent his last years teaching. Analects were , 72/77 disciples & transmitted the old wisdom, Via set of texts ‘Five Classics’. 

Death

He died in 479 BC . Moreover, he was burdened by loss of his son & disciples. He was 72 & died from Natural cause. A tomb was built in memory of Confucius on the bank of Sishui River, shape of an axe. 

Philosophy of Confucius

His philosophy was followed in Religious manner by Chinese. But, many believed it to be Secular & less Religious. Confucianism discussed about Afterlife & views concerning heaven. Though, it was less concerned about spiritual matters. However, Confucius is said to believer in Astrology. He said ” Heaven sends down it’s good/ evil symbols & wise men act accordingly .

Confucius Beliefs

While, Confucius believed people are inherently Good. Further, he asked Good values to be cultivated like a plant. His Moral reteaching emphasized on Self-Cultivation, Emulation of Moral exemplars & attainment of Skilled Judgement. His teachings can be considered a Chinese example of Humanism.

Ethics

Confucius theory of ethics is based on three principle.

  1. Ceremonies associated with sacrifice to ancestors & dieties.
  2. Social & Political Institutions
  3. Etiquette of Daily Behaviour. 

Five Constant Virtues 

  1. COMPASSION
  2. RITUAL PROPRIETY
  3. JUSTICE
  4. KNOWLEDGE ,&
  5. INTEGRITY.