Montesquieu - French Philosopher

Montesquieu, French Philosopher

Charles-Louis de Secondat, Montesquieu. Generally referred as Montesquieu. He is French Judge, Man of letters & Political Philosopher. Popular for his theory of Separation of Powers. He is known for using word despotism in Political Lexon. He hiddeny published The Spirit of the Laws in 1748. He has influenced founders in drafting US Constitution.

Early Life

Montesquieu was born on 18 January 1689. Born in the Château de la Brède in southwest France. His father, Jacques de Secondat, was a soldier. His mother, Marie Françoise de Pesnel, died when Charles was seven, was an heiress. And, she attain title of Barony of La Brède. Montesquieu married the Protestant Jeanne de Lartigue

Education

He went to Catholic College of Juilly, school for French children. He was the counselor of the Bordeaux Parliament in 1714. He joined the office of président à mortier in the Bordeaux Parliament.

Career

Montesquieu stopped practice of law to devote himself to study & writing. Gained success from the publication of Persian Letters in 1721. Thereafter, published Causes of the Greatness of the Romans & their Decline (1734). Which was considered among his three best books. In France, The spirit of Law was opposed by both supporters & opponents
of the regime. Further, the Catholic Church banned his book along with his other works. However, It received appraisal from rest of Europe, especially Britain.



Influencer

Montesquieu was highly regarded as champion of liberty in British colonies in North America. Accordingly, he was frequently quoted authority over government & politics in colonial pre-revolutionary British America. Following American Revolution, Montesquieu’s work remained a powerful influence on several American founders. Like, James Madison, Father of the Constitution.

Later Life & Death

He travelled all across Europe. Finally, in England he became a freemason. Thereby, admitted to Horn Tavern Lodge in Westminster before resettling in France.

Death

He was troubled with poor eyesight & became blind. In 1755, due to high fever he died & was buried in Église Saint-Sulpice, Paris.

Philosophy of History

Montesquieu minimised the role of Individual person & events. Moreover, He believed that each event was driven by a principal movement. Furthermore, he suggested if Cesar & Pompey had not worked to usurp the government. Then, other men would have risen in their place. And, The cause wasn’t the ambition of Caesar or Pompey, but the ambition of man.

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