Look at the history of the world and one thing you will find one common thing in every country’s revolution that is the demand for voting system in India 2019 rights to common people.
It all started from the French Revolution took a halt at the American Revolution and then passed through our own country India through our conquest for freedom.
The one thing, that one demand which was everywhere common is today known as a universal adult franchise.
Today maximum country in the world has installed democracy and the universal adult franchise is the only tool that provides surety to its survival.
Universal adult franchise simply means right to vote to all who are above 18 or more accurately adult according to their respective constitutions.
In simple words voting right simply means right to choose respective representative through votes and where the opinion of everyone matters equally.
Not only as in the case of forming government we see the use of voting even in the corporate world or just remember your class captain or C.R election.
Voting system :
The voting system is generally described as the set of rules through which an election is conducted that means how votes will casted, counted and then aggregated to yield a final result of the election.
Types of Electoral/Voting System :
A. Plurality System (First Past The Post)
This is the most common method of the general election that we encounter even in our country.
In such type of system, the whole country/state is divided into a number of constituencies, mainly according to the population.
Each constituency holds a single representation meaning only a single candidate is elected as representatives.
Every people above 18 of the respective constituency have the right to vote where he is allowed to vote any of the contesting candidates.
The candidate securing the maximum number of vote is considered a winner.
One of the demerits of first past the post is the wastage of more than half of the votes.
It also doesn’t represent the interest of the minority and they are completely ignored.
In fact, a large section of the community gets ignored and only the majority comes in power. Despite its demerits, this system is quite famous in countries like the United Kingdom and India.
B. Majoritarian Electoral System
As in the case of FTP one needs to get a maximum number of votes and not an absolute majority, Majoritarian system seeks for absolute majority i.e. (50+1) %.
It is only possible where two parties are contesting but may and may not be possible in the multi party system. To encounter this there are two methods:
1. Second Ballot System
In this system, there is again a single representative constituency and voting in the first phase are done by first past the post.
If no candidate gets 51% in the first phase all the candidates except the first two are eliminated and then the election is again held and the winner is then decided in round two.
2. Alternative Vote System
This again takes place in the constituency where a single representation is required.
Here voters get to cast their vote according to their preference. That means each voter cast as many words as a number of candidates according to the preference of choice.
The first choice is voted first and so on. At the time of counting if no candidate gets a majority the candidate on the last number is removed and then the vote is it distributed again according to second preference.
This process continues until one candidate doesn’t get a majority. This method of voting is used in Australia and even in India in the elections of President and Vice President.
C.The Proportional Representation :
As from the name the fundamental principle of proportional representation is that a party should represent in a parliament or assembly in the direct and same proportion to their electoral strength.
That means a party will represent the same percentage of seats that it has secured in an election.
It is said that the proportional representation system is the best method to secure everyone’s interest even the minority.
This type of voting is done by two methods.
As from the name it is clear that takes place in the multi-member constituency.
1. Single transferable vote(STV)system
Such type of system is adopted in the multi-member constituency.
In such a system, parties have the freedom to put forward the same number of a candidate as the available seat.
Now the voters have the same number of votes available as the number of candidates and they vote according to preference.
Candidates have to achieve a certain number of votes to get elected.
After election accounting is done in the same way as in the case of an alternative vote system.
The votes of first preference are counted first and if a candidate does not get that much vote the last candidate is eliminated and the vote of second preference is distributed. This process is repeated until we find the winner.
2. Party List System
In this system, the whole country is treated as a single constituency where party published that candidate list according to preference.
Now people of that constituency directly votes for the party instead of candidate and party gets a number of seats in the proportion to their vote.
A country main fixes a minimum number of votes so that it can eliminate smaller parties as 5% in the case of Germany.
No matter which type of voting system a country adopts;
It should be kept in mind that the election should be free and fair, provides the right to equality and in a conquest, for gaining maturity the voice of minority should not get lost.
Its duty of Government and election commission as in case of India to restore people’s faith in an election and to conduct free and fair election far away from corruption.
And as a voter, it’s our duty to cast our vote and do support in building our nation every vote and every opinion matter in a democracy.